Women genitalia of M. fasciculata and tips for mating connect coupling. (A) Virgin people genitalia when you look at the frontal consider. (B) Male genitalia out of pre-copula male, approaching the feminine genitalia. (C–E) Vaginal capsule, metasomal sterna S-VIII and you can S-IX. (F) Male genitalia performing the coupling of one’s plug: ventral look at vaginal product and you may metasomal sternum S-IX projecting outside of the body of your men of the a great telescopic course. (G) Men genital pill detached out of male’s body, having manhood regulators triggered, gonostyli facing the contrary reputation with regards to the initial. (H) Metasomal sterna S-VIII and you will S-IX, in which sternum S-IX takes on its completely new position within the male’s abdomen. (I) Mating plug in more detail, showing brand new lateral compression out of gonocoxites. (J) The brand new genital chamber regarding a plugged ladies: the new membranous area that has the newest mating plug attached.
On low-Melipona species (F
longipes, S. aff. Postica, and P. minima), i seen strong manhood valves with mediator curve and you may a lesser spatha ( Figure 1)paring the overall morphology off penis regulators and spatha of Meters. fasciculata to the other learned species, we found that one another Yards. flavolineata and you can Meters. seminigra has narrow dick valves that have lower curvature. Yet not, Yards. seminigra has less valves than Yards. flavolineata, and a well-known spatha in comparison to the other Melipona ( Contour step one).
Breakdown off hypothesized plugging procedures
The last reputation out-of mating plugs into the mated women paired the brand new position of your male’s instinct while in the copulation because of “J” path and positioning around female’s instinct ( Figure 4C). Throughout physogastric queens regarding M. fasciculata, we noticed new mating plug connected to the membranous genital pouches by the knob regulators, towards spatha epidermis centered to your the female ventral piece, placed under the brand new gonopore ( Contour 3J). We suggest that the new mating plug device try caused in the event that male genital medicine try irreversibly protruded regarding male’s looks, which leads to modified positions of one’s gonostyli, knob valves, and you will gonocoxites.
Brand new mating collection of M. fasciculata, centered on a video record off mating away from a connected kinds. From top to bottom: (A) male in flight, trying updates itself along side lady; (B) organized men, exhibiting pairs away from legs installing over the woman’s muscles; (C) men enhancing the abdomen of one’s female; (D) male making the feminine just after effective mating, which is, this new mating connect connection. In every bits, men wings is actually represented in order to depict its movement throughout mating, according to Supplementary Video S1 .
The mating pair of Yards. fasciculata, according to videos https://besthookupwebsites.org/singleparentmeet-review/ record regarding mating regarding an associated variety. Throughout: (A) men in-flight, looking to status by itself along the female; (B) arranged male, showing pairs from feet fitting along side woman’s body; (C) male enhancing the gut of females; (D) men making the female once profitable mating, that’s, the mating connect connection. In every bits, men wings are depicted to help you depict the movement during mating, according to Secondary Videos S1 .
In line with the assessment ranging from sleep condition away from genital medications and you may brought about state from mating plugs, the practical morphology, plus in clips records into the mating decisions off a directly relevant variety ( Secondary Video clips S1 ), we advise that creating regarding mating connect occurs in 5 hypothetical strategies ( Rates 3 and you will 4):
Shortly after immobilizing the feminine muscles, the male inserts his metasomal sternum S-VIII underneath the people tergum T-VI, lifting they ( Profile 4C).
Since the ladies genital chamber was opened ( Profile 3A), the male gonostyli satisfies the newest female’s genital part. Immediately following positioning the fresh new sternum S-VIII, the male metasomal sternum S-IX protrudes out from the male’s body towards the fresh female’s vaginal chamber also the vaginal capsule, of the good telescopic movement ( Figure 3F). This new installation of male vaginal supplement toward people genital chamber is not followed closely by this new gonostyli, hence disperse backwards within the process, left outside the people genital chamber ( Profile 3G).